The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics

Main activities

The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics – IBGE – is the main provider of data and information in the country and it fulfills the demands of several different segments of civil society, as well of other governmental institutions at federal, state and municipal level.

IBGE presents a complete and updated coverage of Brazil, through its main activities:

  • Production and analysis of statistical information
  • Combination and consolidation of statistical information
  • Production and analysis of geographic information
  • Combination and consolidation of geographic information
  • Structuring and implementation of an environmental information system
  • Information dissemination and documentation
  • Management of the national statistical and cartographic systems


During the Empire, the only institution which developed exclusively statistical activities was the General Department of Statistics, created in 1871. With the declaration of the Republic, the government felt it necessary to expand the scope of action of this department, mainly after the implementation of the civil register of births, marriages and deaths.

As time went by, the organization in charge of statistics in Brazil underwent several changes in its name and activities until 1934, when the General Department of Statistics was extinct and its activities were shared among suitable ministries.

The necessity of having an organization to conduct and control statistical surveys, so as to unify the works of specialized services existing in the country, favored the creation, in 1934, of the national Institute of Statistics – INE, which started its activities on May 29, 1936. In the following year, the Brazilian Council of Geography was created and annexed to INE, which then became the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics.

IBGE has kept this mission for 71 years: it identifies and analyzes the territory, counts the population, shows how the economy has evolved through the work of people and reveals how they live.


IBGE is an institution ruled by the Federal Government and subject to the Ministry of Planning, Budget and Management, which has four departments and two other central organs.

In order to guarantee the coverage of the whole national territory, IBGE holds a national network of surveys and dissemination, which is formed by:

  • 27 State Units (26 in state capitals and 1 in the Federal District)
  • 27 Sectors of Information Documentation and Dissemination (26 in state capitals and 1 in the Federal District)
  • 533 Data Collecting Agencies in the main municipalities of Brazil

IBGE also has the Ecological Reserve of Roncador, located 35 Km to the South of Brasília.